Adverbs are words which give information about when, how, why, where, or in what circumstances something happens.
There are many types of adverbs :
- Adverbs of time
Ø To show when the action happens
Example : – I went to Stadium last night.
– Tomorrow we will go to Bali.
Ø Can also show time relationship
After and Before
– After she graduates, she will get a job.
– I had left before he came.
When = at that time
– When I arrived , he was talking on the phone.
– When I got there, she had already left.
– I will ask him when I see him tomorrow.
– When it began to rain, I stood under a tree.
While and As = during that time
– While I was walking home, it began to rain.
– As I was walking home, it began to rain
By the time = one event is completed before another event
( Notice the use of the past perfect and future perfect in the main clause. )
– By the time he arrived, we had already left.
– We will already have left by the time he comes.
Until and Till = to that time and then no longer.
– We stayed there until we finished our work.
– We will stay there till we finished our work.
( Till is used primarily in speaking rather than writing. )
Punctuation : When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, a comma is used to separate clauses. When the adverb clause follows, usually no comma is used.
- Adverbs of place
Ø To show where the action happens
Example : – We are studying in the library.
– She went there.
– My sister got married last week in Bali.
of time of place
- Adverbs of frequency
Ø To show how often the action happens
– George sometimes studies at the library.
– George has never studied at the library. – Does George ever study at the library ?
-Adverb of frequency comes in front of simple present and simple past verbs.
-Adverb of frequency also comes between a helping verb and a main verb.
In a question, adverb of frequency comes directly after the subject.
- Adverbs of reason
Ø To show why the action happens
May precede or follow the independent clause. Notice the punctuation.
– She went to bed since she was sleepy.
– I decided to watch the concert as long as I interested in music.
– Because I am not busy, I could help you.
– As long as you’re not busy, could you help me with this work ?
- Adverbs of contrast
Ø To show the opposites things.
A Concessive adverbial clause of contrast shows unexpected result.
A comma is NOT USED when the main clause comes first.
– David tries to finish his work even though he is very tired.
despite the fact that
An adversative adverbial clause of contrast shows direct opposition.
– John is a good English teacher whereas his brother excels in
while teaching science.
- Adverbs of condition
Using whether or not and even if
Whether or not and even if have a close in meaning. They express the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters, the result will be the same.
– We are going to go camping in the mountain whether it is cold.
– We are going to go camping in the mountain even if it is not cold.
CONDITION : it is cold or not
UNEXPECTED RESULT : we still go camping in the mountain.
Compare with “if clauses” :
– We will go camping in the mountain if it is not cold.
CONDITION : it is not cold
UNEXPECTED RESULT : we go to camp in the mountain.
§ Using in case and in the event
In case and in the event have the same meaning. They express the idea that something probably won’t happen, but maybe will.
– You can call me in case / in the event you should need any more information.
Meaning : You probably need any more information, but maybe not. If so, you can call me.
§ Using unless
Unless = if….not
– You can’t get a driver’s license unless you’re at least sixteen years old.
Meaning : You can’t get a driver’s license if you’re not at least sixteen years old.
§ Using only if
Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result.
– You can get a driver’s license only if you’re at least sixteen years old.
Meaning : If you’re fourteen, you won’t get a driver’s license.
If you’re fifteen, you won’t get a driver’s license.
- Adverbs of manner
Ø To show how the subject does the action.
– I entered the classroom quietly because I was late.
By keeping the same form as the adjective. And adding –ly to the adjective.
Example : big cold fast low
cheap dead fine quick
clean dear last right
close dirty long straight
clear far loud thick
– Frank asked me an easy question, so I answered it easily.
By changing the spelling of the adjective and adding –ly.
-y à -ily
-le à -ly
-ic à -ically
Example : nosy-noisily, lucky-luckily, simple-simply
sensible-sensibly, dramatic-dramatically, whole-wholly
– Ali speaks English very well, he has very well pronunciation.
Irregularly : good-well
The word well can be either an adverb or an adjective. However, well usually refers specifically to health, whereas good can refer to one’s physical and/or emotional condition.