Adverbial Clauses

Adverbs are words which give information about when, how, why, where, or in what circumstances something happens.

There are many types of adverbs :

  1. Adverbs of time

Ø To show when the action happens

Example : – I went to Stadium last night.

Tomorrow we will go to Bali.

Ø Can also show time relationship

Example :

After and Before

– After she graduates, she will get a job.

– I had left before he came.

When = at that time

– When I arrived , he was talking on the phone.

– When I got there, she had already left.

– I will ask him when I see him tomorrow.

– When it began to rain, I stood under a tree.

While and As = during that time

– While I was walking home, it began to rain.

– As I was walking home, it began to rain

By the time = one event is completed before another event

( Notice the use of the past perfect and future perfect in the main clause. )

– By the time he arrived, we had already left.

Main clause

– We will already have left by the time he comes.

Main clause

Until and Till = to that time and then no longer.

– We stayed there until we finished our work.

– We will stay there till we finished our work.

( Till is used primarily in speaking rather than writing. )

Punctuation : When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, a comma is used to separate clauses. When the adverb clause follows, usually no comma is used.

  1. Adverbs of place

Ø To show where the action happens

Example : – We are studying in the library.

– She went there.

– My sister got married last week in Bali.

adverb adverb

of time of place

  1. Adverbs of frequency

Ø To show how often the action happens

Example :

always

usually

often

– George sometimes studies at the library.

– George has never studied at the library. – Does George ever study at the library ?

seldom

rarely

-Adverb of frequency comes in front of simple present and simple past verbs.

-Adverb of frequency also comes between a helping verb and a main verb.

In a question, adverb of frequency comes directly after the subject.

  1. Adverbs of reason

Ø To show why the action happens

May precede or follow the independent clause. Notice the punctuation.

Example :

because

She went to bed since she was sleepy.

I decided to watch the concert as long as I interested in music.

inasmuch as

Because I am not busy, I could help you.

As long as you’re not busy, could you help me with this work ?

  1. Adverbs of contrast

Ø To show the opposites things.

CONCESSIVE

A Concessive adverbial clause of contrast shows unexpected result.

A comma is NOT USED when the main clause comes first.

Example :

although

– David tries to finish his work even though he is very tired.

despite the fact that

ADVERSATIVE

An adversative adverbial clause of contrast shows direct opposition.

Example :

– John is a good English teacher whereas his brother excels in

while teaching science.

  1. Adverbs of condition

Using whether or not and even if

Whether or not and even if have a close in meaning. They express the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters, the result will be the same.

Example :

– We are going to go camping in the mountain whether it is cold.

– We are going to go camping in the mountain even if it is not cold.

CONDITION : it is cold or not

UNEXPECTED RESULT : we still go camping in the mountain.

Compare with “if clauses” :

– We will go camping in the mountain if it is not cold.

CONDITION : it is not cold

UNEXPECTED RESULT : we go to camp in the mountain.

§ Using in case and in the event

In case and in the event have the same meaning. They express the idea that something probably won’t happen, but maybe will.

Example :

– You can call me in case / in the event you should need any more information.

Meaning : You probably need any more information, but maybe not. If so, you can call me.

§ Using unless

Unless = if….not

Example :

– You can’t get a driver’s license unless you’re at least sixteen years old.

Meaning : You can’t get a driver’s license if you’re not at least sixteen years old.

§ Using only if

Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result.

Example :

– You can get a driver’s license only if you’re at least sixteen years old.

Meaning : If you’re fourteen, you won’t get a driver’s license.

If you’re fifteen, you won’t get a driver’s license.

  1. Adverbs of manner

Ø To show how the subject does the action.

Example :

I entered the classroom quietly because I was late.

By keeping the same form as the adjective. And adding –ly to the adjective.

Example : big cold fast low

cheap dead fine quick

clean dear last right

close dirty long straight

clear far loud thick

etc.

Frank asked me an easy question, so I answered it easily.

By changing the spelling of the adjective and adding –ly.

-y à -ily

-le à -ly

-ic à -ically

Example : nosy-noisily, lucky-luckily, simple-simply

sensible-sensibly, dramatic-dramatically, whole-wholly

Ali speaks English very well, he has very well pronunciation.

Irregularly : good-well

The word well can be either an adverb or an adjective. However, well usually refers specifically to health, whereas good can refer to one’s physical and/or emotional condition.